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Amplitude Modulation, Morse Code and the Fourier Series

Compromises and trade-offs must be made.

Amplitude Modulation, AM, was the first audio radio communications and broadcast method developed and is the easiest to understand. Simply put, there is a continuous sine wave of a given assigned frequency and the amplitude of that wave is changed by a signal. Usually the signal is an

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Sprouting some Fuzz. Creating Distortion in an Amplifier

An amplifier Clipping a Sine Wave.

Finally we are back to circuits and not just talking numbers and math! First, we will do a little summary of what we have recently talked about. Any repeating waveform can be derived from a sine wave and one or more harmonics of that sine wave. A harmonic

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A Plastic Barrel Pontoon Raft – Part 2

Breaking down the Problem into important areas.

This post and video is a continuation of the previous post. However, it is also much more. By calculating the lift of a partially submerged barrel we can estimate how high our raft will float in the water and how much we can load the raft. To

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Buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle.

Buoyancy of a partially Immersed container

Before I get into the material of this post I need to make one announcement. For some reason Hotmail and related services seem to be not delivering a lot of the e-mails for the subscription service. When I get one of those I unsubscribe the e-mail address. It

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The Cartesian Coordinate System Part 1

Points on a Catesian Coordinate

Today’s Post is in many ways a back-up and regroup post. I think this will be very easy for most people. However, I needed to build a good foundation of ideas before we proceed head-long into the complicated stuff where we have already been. Also, this is probably a

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Examples of Problems with Grounding Electrical Systems

Faking out the Ground Plug.

Tonight’s post is a continuation of the last post “Grounding and Neutral in Power Wiring” and I am going to show a couple of examples of problems with grounding in power and even instrumentation and audio systems. Some of these problems are in my opinion still not resolved and

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Negative Feedback to compensate for Beta Variation in BJTs.

Negative FB Biasing.

In the last post, “Using the Transistor Model – Our first circuit“, the wide tolerance of β (hFE) in the transistor specifications is making life complicated. “Complicate our life will ya!” We will fix the problem by complicating the circuit to reduce the complications. Seriously, we will add several more resistors

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Field Effect Transistor Theory – Part 3

Depletion Mode IGFET symbols

In part 2 I finished up the description of the JFET. Tonight I will describe the operation of an Insulated Gate Field Effect Transistor (IGFET). Most often an IGFET is called a MOSFET because of the materials used in it, Metal Oxide Silicon FET. For those of you that have

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Field Effect Transistor Theory – Part 2

JFET symbols

In Part 1 we introduced a conceptual diagram of the construction of a JFET and talked about what happens if the gate voltages is changed in comparison to the source while the drain to source voltage is kept at a low value. Today we are going to start out talking about what

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A Request and an Open Invitation to guide this site.

Posts will be coming out very slow for awhile. There are several reasons for that. I have just been assigned some work at my daily employment that is in an area I am not as familiar with as I want to be. It is time for me to do some digging into some software so

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