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Amplitude Modulation, Morse Code and the Fourier Series

Compromises and trade-offs must be made.

Amplitude Modulation, AM, was the first audio radio communications and broadcast method developed and is the easiest to understand. Simply put, there is a continuous sine wave of a given assigned frequency and the amplitude of that wave is changed by a signal. Usually the signal is an

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Purposeful Distortion or It is Cool to be Square

The frequency Spectrum of a Sine Wave. (Click on the picture to expand it.)

Distortion is something that is unwanted in music reproduction systems. Those systems used to be advertised as high fidelity and claimed to reliably reproduce the sound files sent to them from phonograph records, audio tapes, etc. I have not heard

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Why both Sines and Cosines with the Fourier series?

Phase Shifting.

So far with the Fourier Series we have made some interesting waveforms but what happens in real life? Things are never as clean in real life as on paper. (Except maybe my smudged up papers.) If you think of a perfect square wave with an infinite number of odd harmonics, what would

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How a GFCI operates and why it requires no ground.

Magnetic field around a wire with the conventional current flowing into the page.

Way back, a long time ago, I started introducing the idea of inductance in a post called “Through the Looking Glass – Duality – The Inductor“. To start talking about inductance it is necessary to talk about electromagnetism and that is

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Examples of Problems with Grounding Electrical Systems

Faking out the Ground Plug.

Tonight’s post is a continuation of the last post “Grounding and Neutral in Power Wiring” and I am going to show a couple of examples of problems with grounding in power and even instrumentation and audio systems. Some of these problems are in my opinion still not resolved and

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Grounding and Neutral in Power Wiring.

Partial diagram of typical wiring for a residence.

Recently I changed a setting on this blog to put no time limit for comments and I got a very interesting comment/question in the post: Ground, Common, Neutral, Reference, and Buses. I am not going to repeat the question and my answer here, but that question

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Several Announcements and another Qucs Video.

Qucs video Part 5

This post is an announcement of several things. As usual I am going to change direction for awhile for several reasons. First the Big Announcement. Create-and-make is the featured website for this week on an outstanding Website for the Electrical Engineering Community, EEWeb.com, A link to the feature and the

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Qucs – Documentation, the Net List, and the Component Library

Title screen of the new video.

I hope by now I have many of you interested in using Qucs for simulating electronics circuits. This is another blog wrapped around a video I have posted. I still do have my “love – hate” relationship with simulations. You can do a lot very quickly with simulations,

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Using Qucs with a Non-linear Model of a Transistor.

The opening screen to the new video.

Tonight I posted a new video. The video shows how to find the parameter values for a non-linear model of the transistor. This is the best possible model. However, remember it is just a model and there is significant manufacturing tolerances in transistors. The simple model we

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Bipolar Junction Transistor DC Biasing Calculations Example.

The model of the circuit we are biasing.

It is Number Crunching Time! Tonight we set the DC Bias of the circuit shown in the first diagram. Once we do that we will run several Qucs simulations of the circuit with the numbers we calculate. We will do those simulations with different values for

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