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Piddling with the PID controller

A complete PID controller.

In this post I complete all the functions of a PID controller by adding the D to the PI controller in the previous post. If you have not followed all of the posts related to modeling the car and the cruise control, you will be lost at this point and

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Putting the memory from our right foot into the controller.

Adding a Memory Component to our Cruse Control

In the post “Controlling the speed of our Rocket car – Proportional Control“, we had a very hard time ever getting the car up to speed. At the very end of the post I explained why. With proportional only control if the speed of the car

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Controlling the Speed of our rocket car – Part 1 Proportional Control.

Generic Feedback Block Diagram

Now that we have created ourselves a simplified model of a car in “Understanding why cars reach a maximum speed” we are going to replace the driver controlling the speed of the car with a control loop. All of the things going through our mind now have to go through

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Understanding why cars reach a maximum speed.

Generic Feedback Block Diagram

We still have two basic op-amp circuits to talk about. The problem is these two circuits have names associated with math terms. As usual I am going to do everything backwards. Math is normally taught before a reason is given to understand the math. But no, I can’t do it

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Complex Number Math – Sinusoidal Analysis

The circuit we are going to solve.

Tonight we will jump right into solving for the total impedance, total current, and the currents through and the voltage across each individual components. In doing this we will use complex numbers and as you will find is not all that complex to do. The circuit is

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Vectoring in on a Solution – Phasors

Graphical representation of phase and amplitude.

Mathematics is really a bag of tricks to try to represent real and actions a provides a way to calculate and predict things. Over the next 2 or 3 posts I am going to arm you with a new set of tricks. However, it will be necessary to

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Three is right for me.

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Three blades rotated a random amount.

Three sounds like a strange number, but it turns out to be the perfectly balanced number when considering spinning objects. Most electricity is used to spin motors and almost all of it is generated by spinning alternators. Three phase is very common in electricity. Three blades are often

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Circles and Cycles

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Sine and Cosine.

I created a video over the weekend showing the relationship of a sine wave to a cosine wave. The cosine wave is shifted 90 degrees from a sine wave. (Think Capacitors and Inductors!!! Deja Vu all over again!!!)

First, I create the two waveforms using the unit circle method and CAD.

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Variation, tolerances, probability, and specifications.

The Normal Distribution or “Bell Curve”.

In the last post I did a lot of talking about specifications and tolerances of components and the “worst case” situation. After the article was posted I realized I probably should explain some about all those terms.

When a manufacture marks a tolerance specification on a component, he

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Exponentials and Logarithms

Time constant vs. time.

In the last post, Our First Look at Thermistor details, I talked a little about the exponential increase in resistance as the thermistor was exposed to cold temperatures. Since then I realized we have not talked in detail what an exponential means. Also there is more than one base number

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