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Amplitude Modulation, Morse Code and the Fourier Series

Compromises and trade-offs must be made.

Amplitude Modulation, AM, was the first audio radio communications and broadcast method developed and is the easiest to understand. Simply put, there is a continuous sine wave of a given assigned frequency and the amplitude of that wave is changed by a signal. Usually the signal is an

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Analyzing the Frequency Spectrum of our Distortion Circuits.

The Output Wave Shape of the Diodes in the feedback Circuit.

Now that we have a way of calculating the frequency spectrum of the output from Qucs we can look at the harmonics created by our distortion circuits. The one I was most interested in was the output of the one created by diodes

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Finding the frequency components of a Qucs Output.

Fig 1: Initializing the Python Fourier Transform Program

Tonight’s post is again about the harmonic frequencies present in waveforms that are not simple sine waves. I needed a way to analyse the outputs of the circuits we were simulating in Qucs. To do that I had to create myself a tool. I wrote a

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Sprouting Fuzz part II – Clamping a Signal

A clamp in the feedback circuit.

In the last post we added distortion by simply over-driving an amplifier to the point where it clipped, or squared-off the top of the waveform. It basically said…”that’s all I can do… I can’t do no more”. In this post and video I show two simple op-amp circuits

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Sprouting some Fuzz. Creating Distortion in an Amplifier

An amplifier Clipping a Sine Wave.

Finally we are back to circuits and not just talking numbers and math! First, we will do a little summary of what we have recently talked about. Any repeating waveform can be derived from a sine wave and one or more harmonics of that sine wave. A harmonic

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Purposeful Distortion or It is Cool to be Square

The frequency Spectrum of a Sine Wave. (Click on the picture to expand it.)

Distortion is something that is unwanted in music reproduction systems. Those systems used to be advertised as high fidelity and claimed to reliably reproduce the sound files sent to them from phonograph records, audio tapes, etc. I have not heard

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Why both Sines and Cosines with the Fourier series?

Phase Shifting.

So far with the Fourier Series we have made some interesting waveforms but what happens in real life? Things are never as clean in real life as on paper. (Except maybe my smudged up papers.) If you think of a perfect square wave with an infinite number of odd harmonics, what would

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The Fourier Series — Part 1

A Fundamental and odd harmonics from 3 to 101

Tonight’s post is about adding multiple sine waves to create another waveform. Each of the sine waves is an positive integer (whole number) multiple of the frequency of the base sine wave. These additional frequencies are called harmonics of the the base frequency. The base

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The final analysis of a floating barrel. Flotation Part III

Bouyancy calcs for greater than 50% immersed.

Tonight’s post is the last of the posts about buoyancy and calculating the lift of a plastic barrel immersed in water. This shows the calculations for a barrel supporting a weight causing the barrel to be immersed greater that 50%.

The calculations are very similar to the

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A Plastic Barrel Pontoon Raft – Part 2

Breaking down the Problem into important areas.

This post and video is a continuation of the previous post. However, it is also much more. By calculating the lift of a partially submerged barrel we can estimate how high our raft will float in the water and how much we can load the raft. To

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